Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
( Ninth Guru of Sikhism )
Guru Tegh Bahadur (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਤੇਗ ਬਹਾਦਰ, pronunciation: (Punjabi: [gʊɾuː t̯eːgᵊ bəɦaːd̯ʊɾᵊ]; 21 April 1621 – 24 November 1675) was the ninth of ten Gurus who founded the Sikh religion and the leader of Sikhs from 1665 until his beheading in 1675. He was born in Amritsar, Punjab, India in 1621 and was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind Sahib, the sixth Sikh guru. Considered a principled and fearless warrior, he was a learned spiritual scholar and poet whose 115 hymns are included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the main text of Sikhism.
Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed (by beheading) on the orders of Aurangzeb, the sixth Mughal emperor, in Delhi, India. Sikh holy premises Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib and Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib in Delhi mark the places of execution and cremation of Guru Tegh Bahadur. His martyrdom is remembered as the Shaheedi Divas of Guru Tegh Bahadur every year
ਸੋਰਠਿ ਮਹਲਾ ੯ ॥
Sorat'h, Ninth Mehla:
ਪ੍ਰਾਨੀ ਕਉਨੁ ਉਪਾਉ ਕਰੈ ॥
What efforts should the mortal make,
ਜਾ ਤੇ ਭਗਤਿ ਰਾਮ ਕੀ ਪਾਵੈ ਜਮ ਕੋ ਤ੍ਰਾਸੁ ਹਰੈ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥
to attain devotional worship of the Lord, and eradicate the fear of death? ||1||Pause||
ਕਉਨੁ ਕਰਮ ਬਿਦਿਆ ਕਹੁ ਕੈਸੀ ਧਰਮੁ ਕਉਨੁ ਫੁਨਿ ਕਰਈ ॥
Which actions, what sort of knowledge, and what religion - what Dharma should one practice?
ਕਉਨੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਗੁਰ ਜਾ ਕੈ ਸਿਮਰੈ ਭਵ ਸਾਗਰ ਕਉ ਤਰਈ ॥੧॥
What Name of the Guru should one remember in meditation, to cross over the terrifying world-ocean? ||1||
Legacy and Memorials of
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
Guru Har Gobind was Guru Tegh Bahadur's father. He was originally named Tyag Mal (Punjabi: ਤਿਆਗ ਮਲ) but was later renamed Tegh Bahadur after his gallantry and bravery in the wars against the Mughal forces. He built the city of Anandpur Sahib and was responsible for saving a faction of Kashmiri Pandits, who were being persecuted by the Mughals.
After the execution of Tegh Bahadar by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, a number of Sikh temples were built in his and his associates' memory. The Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Chandni Chowk, Delhi, was built over where he was beheaded. Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib, also in Delhi, is built on the site of the residence of a disciple of Teg Bahadur, who burned his house to cremate his master's body.
Gurdwara Sisganj Sahib in Punjab marks the site where in November 1675, the head of the martyred Guru Teg Bahadar which was brought by Bhai Jaita (renamed Bhai Jiwan Singh according to Sikh rites) in defiance of the Mughal authority of Aurangzeb was cremated here. During his journey to Anandpur Sahib Bhai Jaita Singh reach a village near Delhi in Sonipat and the Mughal army also reach that village. Bhai Jaita demand for help to villagers so the villagers hideout Bhai Jaita with Guru' head. A villager named Kushal Singh Dahiya came ahead and offers his own head in the place of Guru's head to Mughal army. After beheading Kushal Singh Dahiya the villagers shuffle the heads and give the head of Kushal Singh Dahiya to Mughal army.
Tegh Bahadur has been remembered for giving up his life for freedom of religion, reminding Sikhs and non-Muslims in India to follow and practice their beliefs without fear of persecution and forced conversions by Muslims. Guru Tegh Bahadur was martyred, along with fellow devotees Bhai Mati Dass, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala. 24 November, the date of his martyrdom, is observed in certain parts of India as a public holiday