Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji
( Sixth Guru of Sikhism )
Gurū Hargobind (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਹਰਿਗੋਬਿੰਦ, pronunciation: [gʊɾuː ɦəɾᵊgoːbɪn̯d̯ᵊ], 19 June 1595 – 28 February 1644), revered as the sixth Nānak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He had become Guru at the young age of eleven, after the execution of his father, Guru Arjan, by the Mughal emperor Jahangir.
Guru Hargobind introduced the process of militarization to Sikhism, likely as a response to his father's execution and to protect the Sikh community. He symbolized it by wearing two swords, representing the dual concept of mīrī and pīrī (temporal power and spiritual authority). In front of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Guru Hargobind constructed the Akal Takht (the throne of the timeless one). The Akal Takht represents the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa (the collective body of the Sikhs) today.
ਦਸਤਗੀਰ ਹੁਇ ਪੰਜ ਪੀਰ ਹਰਿ ਗੁਰੁ ਹਰਿ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਅਤੋਲਾ।
The first five Gurus held the hands of the people and the sixth Guru Hargobind is incomparable God-Guru.
ਦੀਨ ਦੁਨੀ ਦਾ ਪਾਤਸਾਹ ਪਾਤਸਾਹਾਂ ਪਾਤਸਾਹ ਅਡੋਲਾ।
He is the king of spirituality as well as temporality and is in fact irremovable emperor of all the kings.
ਪੰਜ ਪਿਆਲੇ ਅਜਰੁ ਜਰਿ ਹੁਇ ਮਸਤਾਨ ਸੁਜਾਣ ਵਿਚੋਲਾ।
Assimilating the unbearable knowledge of the earlier five cups (Gurus) in the inner core of his mind he re,mains merry and wise mediator for humanity.
ਤੁਰੀਆ ਚੜੑਹਿ ਜਿਣਿ ਪਰਮਤਤੁ ਛਿਅ ਵਰਤਾਰੇ ਕੋਲੋ ਕੋਲਾ।
In spite of the six philosophies spread around, he reaching the turiyä (highest stage of meditation) has attained the supreme reality.
ਛਿਅ ਦਰਸਨ ਛਿਅ ਪੀੜ੍ਹੀਆਂ ਇਕਸੁ ਦਰਸਨੁ ਅੰਦਰਿ ਗੋਲਾ।
He has strung all the six philosophies and their sects in the strung of one philosophy.
ਜਤੀ ਸਤੀ ਸੰਤੋਖੀਆਂ ਸਿਧ ਨਾਥ ਅਵਤਾਰ ਵਿਰੋਲਾ।
He has churned the essence of the lives of celebate ascetics, the followers of truth, contented people, the siddhs and naths (yogis) and the (so called) incarnations of God.
ਗਿਆਰਹ ਰੁਦ੍ਰ ਸੁਮੰਦ੍ਰ ਵਿਚਿ ਮਰਿ ਜੀਵੇ ਤਿਸੁ ਰਤਨ ਅਮੋਲਾ।
All the eleven Rudrs remain in the ocean but those (divers) who seek life in death get the invaluable jewels.
ਬਾਰਹ ਸੋਲਾਂ ਮੇਲ ਕਰਿ ਵੀਹ ਇਕੀਹ ਚੜ੍ਹਾਉ ਹਿੰਡੋਲਾ।
All the twelve zodiac sings of sun, sixteen phases of moon and numerous constellations have provided a beautiful swing for him.
ਅੰਤਰਜਾਮੀ ਬਾਲਾ ਭੋਲਾ ॥੩॥
This Guru is omniscient yet he possesses a childlike innocence.
Guru HarGobind Sahib Ji
• Introduced martial arts and weapons training and created a standing Military force for the defense of the masses following his father's martyrdom.
• Carried 2 swords of Miri and Piri.
• Built the Akal Takht in 1608 - which is now one of five Takhts (Seats of Power) of the Sikh Religion.
• Founded the city of Kiratpur in District Rupnagar, (old name Ropar), Punjab
• Was held in the fort of Gwalior for one year, ostensibly to pray for the recovery of the ill Emperor Jahangir (the Guru had willingly gone to the fort). When Jahangir ordered his release, he refused to leave unless 52 imprisoned hindu Rajas were freed as well. Cleverly he earned their freedom by turning the Emperor's own words against him. To mark this occasion, Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chorr Divas to celebrate his release and return to Amritsar.
• First Guru to engage in warfare, fighting and winning 4 defensive battles with Mughal forces.
• The city Hargobindpur, in Majha region of Punjab, is named after him, which he won over from Mughals after defeating them in a battle.