Guru Angad Dev Ji
( Second Guru of Sikhism )
Guru Angad (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552; Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਅੰਗਦ, pronunciation: [gʊɾuː əŋgəd̯ᵊ]) was the second of the ten Sikh gurus of Sikhism. After meeting Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, becoming a Sikh, and serving and working with Guru Nanak for many years, Guru Nanak gave Lehna the name Angad ("my own limb"), and chose Angad as the second Sikh Guru.
After the death of Guru Nanak in 1539, Guru Angad led the Sikh tradition. He is remembered in Sikhism for adopting and formalizing the Gurmukhi alphabet. He began the process of compiling the hymns of Guru Nanak and contributed 62 or 63 hymns of his own. Instead of his own son, he chose his disciple Amar Das as his successor and the third Guru of Sikhism
ਤੁਧੁ ਆਪੇ ਜਗਤੁ ਉਪਾਇ ਕੈ ਤੁਧੁ ਆਪੇ ਧੰਧੈ ਲਾਇਆ ॥
You Yourself created the world, and You Yourself put it to work.
ਮੋਹ ਠਗਉਲੀ ਪਾਇ ਕੈ ਤੁਧੁ ਆਪਹੁ ਜਗਤੁ ਖੁਆਇਆ ॥
Administering the drug of emotional attachment, You Yourself have led the world astray.
ਤਿਸਨਾ ਅੰਦਰਿ ਅਗਨਿ ਹੈ ਨਹ ਤਿਪਤੈ ਭੁਖਾ ਤਿਹਾਇਆ ॥
The fire of desire is deep within; unsatisfied, people remain hungry and thirsty.
ਸਹਸਾ ਇਹੁ ਸੰਸਾਰੁ ਹੈ ਮਰਿ ਜੰਮੈ ਆਇਆ ਜਾਇਆ ॥
This world is an illusion; it dies and it is re-born-it comes and it goes in reincarnation.
ਬਿਨੁ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਮੋਹੁ ਨ ਤੁਟਈ ਸਭਿ ਥਕੇ ਕਰਮ ਕਮਾਇਆ ॥
Without the True Guru, emotional attachment is not broken. All have grown weary of performing empty rituals.takes birth neither does dies. God is Self Existent
ਗੁਰਮਤੀ ਨਾਮੁ ਧਿਆਈਐ ਸੁਖਿ ਰਜਾ ਜਾ ਤੁਧੁ ਭਾਇਆ ॥
Those who follow the Guru's Teachings meditate on the Naam, the Name of the Lord. Filled with a joyful peace, they surrender to Your Will.
ਕੁਲੁ ਉਧਾਰੇ ਆਪਣਾ ਧੰਨੁ ਜਣੇਦੀ ਮਾਇਆ ॥
They save their families and ancestors; blessed are the mothers who gave birth to them.
ਸੋਭਾ ਸੁਰਤਿ ਸੁਹਾਵਣੀ ਜਿਨਿ ਹਰਿ ਸੇਤੀ ਚਿਤੁ ਲਾਇਆ ॥੨॥
Beautiful and sublime is the glory and the understanding of those who focus their consciousness on the Lord. ||2||
Guru Angad Dev Ji
Guru Angad is credited in the Sikh tradition with the Gurmukhi script, which is now the standard writing script for Punjabi language in India, in contrast to Punjabi language in Pakistan where now a Perso-Arabic script called Shahmukhi is the standard. The original Sikh scriptures and most of the historic Sikh literature have been written in the Gurmukhi script.
Guru Angad standardized and made improvements to the scripts of the region to create the Gurmukhi script. Examples of possible forerunners of the script including at least one hymn written in acrostic form by Guru Nanak, and its earlier history is yet to be fully determined.
He also wrote 62 or 63 Saloks (compositions), which together constitute about one percent of the Guru Granth Sahib, the primary scripture of Sikhism. Rather than contribute hymns, Angad's importance was as a consolidator of Guru Nanak's hymns. Guru Angad would also supervise the writing down of Nanak's hymns by Bhai Paira Mokha and scrutinize the resulting compilation, preparing the way for a Sikh scripture, as well as the beginning of a vernacular Punjabi literature, as tradition holds that he may have also commissioned an account of Guru Nanak's life from earlier disciples. The collection of hymns would also be increasingly important for the expanding community.
Langar and community work
Guru Angad is notable for systematizing the institution of langar in all Sikh temple premises, where visitors from near and far could get a free simple meal in a communal seating. He also set the rules and training method for volunteers (sevadars) who operated the kitchen, placing emphasis on treating it as a place of rest and refuge, being always polite and hospitable to all visitors.
Guru Angad visited other places and centres established by Guru Nanak for the preaching of Sikhism. He established new centres and thus strengthened its base.
The Guru, being a great patron of wrestling, started a Mall Akhara (wrestling arena) system where physical exercises, martial arts, and wrestling was taught as well as health topics such as staying away from tobacco and other toxic substances. He placed emphasis on keeping the body healthy and excersising daily. He founded many such Mall Akharas in many villages including a few in Khandur. Typically the wrestling was done after daily prayers and also included games and light wrestling.